The pressure regulator is an electronic device that is controlled by the PCM (Powertrain Control Module), using data supplied by the fuel pressure sensors located on the injector rail. While the vehicle is running, the PCM adjusts the battery voltage and the ground signal to the regulator, and thus activates a servomotor that in turn actuates the valve, which achieves the required pressure level for the given situation.
Once the voltage in the servomotor of the regulator is increased, the valve proceeds to open and consequently increase the fuel pressure. The regulator and pressure sensor are usually integrated into the same housing, although depending on the manufacturer they may be separate components.
If the fuel pressure regulator 1 circuit voltage has a value above that programmed by the manufacturer, indicating that the actual pressure is not adequate, the fault code P228D OBDII will be set. This code generally applies exclusively to diesel vehicles, and the regulator designated as 1 applies to vehicles with multiple regulators, although this number may also indicate an engine bank. Therefore, refer to the source information for application to your vehicle.